東京大学医学系研究科 国際保健政策学 東京大学 The University of Tokyo

Department of Global Health Policy

Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo

Publications

2019.4.8

Paper on sexual inexperience in Japan published

日本人全体の異性間性交渉未経験の割合を推定した論文が英医学誌BMC Public Health に 発表された。出生動向基本調査のデータを用いた本研究では、異性間性交渉の経験がない 18-39歳の男女の割合が1992年から2015年の間増加傾向にあるとことが分かった。30代の男女の10人に一人は異性間性交渉未経験であった。無職、非正規・時短雇用及び低い収入が、男性では異性間性交渉経験が無いことに関連していることがわかった。

論文の日本語訳はこちら

The first study assessing the proportion of young Japanese adults who has no heterosexual experience has been published in BMC Public Health. In analyses using data from the National Fertility Survey, the proportion of 18-39 year-old Japanese women and men who report no experience of heterosexual intercourse had increased between 1992 and 2015 and 1 in 10 adults remained inexperienced in their 30s. Among men (but not women) unemployment and [...]

2015.3.13

GHP Publishes Major Tobacco Research in the Lancet

Is the world on track towards eliminating the tobacco epidemic?

With more than one billion individuals projected to be tobacco smokers by the year 2025, persistent disparities in tobacco smoking between countries, and rapid growth of smoking in African and eastern Mediterranean nations, there are still major challenges to be overcome in curbing the tobacco epidemic. These are the findings of a collaborative project led by Ver Bilano, a graduate student in the Department of Global Health Policy, which is published [...]

2015.3.13

2025年の世界の喫煙削減目標は達成可能か?

発表者: 

ビラノ バー(東京大学大学院医学系研究科国際保健政策学 博士課程大学院生)

ギルモア スチュアート(東京大学大学院医学系研究科国際保健政策学 助教)

渋谷 健司(東京大学大学院医学系研究科国際保健政策学 教授)

発表概要: 

世界保健機関(WHO)の世界モニタリング枠組に従い、WHO加盟国は2025年までに、たばこ使用を削減する目標を達成することに合意している。これまで、この削減目標が達成可能であるかどうかを検討した研究はなかった。

今 回、東京大学大学院医学系研究科国際保健政策学の渋谷健司教授、同博士課程ビラノ・バー大学院生、ギルモア・スチュアート助教らは、WHO及び豪州ニュー カッスル大学との共同研究により、多くの国で2025年までにたばこ使用の削減目標が達成される見込みは低いとの結果を得た。

研究チームは、たばこ規制に関するWHO包括的情報システムのデータと最新の統計解析モデルを用いて、喫煙率に関して、1990年から2010年までの動向を検証し、2025年までの将来予測を行った。

世 界全体では、喫煙率は少しずつ低下しており、2000年から2010年にかけて、男性の喫煙率が125カ国(72%)、女性では155カ国(87%)で減 少した。しかし、アフリカや中東の国々では今後、喫煙率は増加し、2025年時点で喫煙人口は11億人に達し、たばこの使用が世界的に広がるリスクがある と予測された。

2025年までのたばこ使用の削減目標を達成し、たばこ使用を世界的に根絶するためには、即座に効果的かつ持続的な世界的なたばこ規制が必要であると結論付けられた。

発表雑誌: 

雑誌名: The Lancet 2015年3月14日号 385: 966–76

論文タイトル:Global trends and projections for tobacco use, 1990–2025: an analysis of smoking indicators from the WHO Comprehensive Information Systems for Tobacco Control.

著者:Ver Bilano, Stuart Gilmour, Trevor Moffiet, Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet, Gretchen A Stevens, Alison Commar, Frank Tuyl, Irene Hudson, Kenji Shibuya.

2014.9.16

GHP publishes important paper on Ebola virus

Associate Professor Hiroshi Nishiura has published a paper on Ebola virus in the journal Eurosurveillance. This is the first research to estimate the reproduction number of Ebola virus disease (EVD), calculating it at between 1.4 and 1.7. The reproduction number of an infectious disease measures its transmission potential, and this value suggests that the current Ebola outbreak can be managed by reducing the number of secondary cases of EVD from each primary case by more than half. The article can [...]

2014.8.29

Professor Shibuya published in Nature on the issue of Japanese medical research scandals

This week Professor Kenji Shibuya and colleagues published correspondence in the journal Nature, discussing the need to reform Japan’s research practices in light of recent scandals. The letter discusses the challenges prime minister Abe faces trying to strengthen Japan’s medical research industry at the same time as Japan’s international research reputation is being undermined by major research misconduct scandals. Tanimoto, Kami and Shibuya call for misconduct investigations to be open and formally conducted, in order that lessons can be learned [...]

2014.5.30

Time to reconsider thyroid cancer screening in Fukushima.

Professors Shibuya and Gilmour from GHP, and Akira Oshima from Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, today published a letter in The Lancet about challenges to thyroid screening in radiation-affected areas in Fukushima. Their letter recommends a careful scientific and ethical reassessment of the newly-commenced thyroid screening program, which in its current form may not calm the fears of local residents, nor provide good scientific evidence concerning thyroid cancer risk.

The letter can be read here.

2014.4.4

Diagnosis of a single imported dengue case who had travelled to Japan

A medical student conducting an internship at GHP has reported his analysis results from a mathematical modeling study.

Ryo Ueno, a fifth-year medical student at the Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, with GHP staff member Associate Professor Hiroshi Nishiura, has published a short note on epidemiological interpretations of the diagnosis of a single imported case of dengue in a German traveler returning from Japan. The letter was published in the February issue of Eurosurveillance, and can be read [...]

2014.1.23

GHP students in a clean sweep of the faculty of medicine student papers contest

On January 20th, 2014 two GHP students came first and second in the 16th Annual Contest for Scientific Papers by Foreign Students, held by the Graduate School of Medicine. This contest is open to foreign students of the Graduate School of Medicine who were the first author on a paper accepted for publication in 2013. GHP students Ver Bilano and Sarah Krull Abe came first and second, respectively.

Ver Bilano won first prize for her paper Smoking attributable burden [...]

2013.11.18

Noncommunicable Diseases in the Developing World: Addressing the Gaps in Global Health Policy

GHP staff have contributed a chapter to an important new book, Noncommunicable Diseases in the Developing World: Addressing the Gaps in Global Health Policy.

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) – including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma and chronic respiratory infections, and cancers – are the leading causes of death worldwide. Roughly two out of three deaths globally are from NCDs and 80% of these fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries.

Noncommunicable Diseases in the Developing World: Addressing the Gaps in Global Health Policy [...]

2013.9.20

HPV Vaccination Program in Japan

当教室のスタッフと学生が執筆したヒトパピローマウイルス感染症の定期接種をめぐる日本の政策決定に関するレターがランセット誌に掲載されました。2013年6月に厚生労働省が通知したヒトパピローマウイルス感染症の定期接種の対応に関する勧告は混乱を招くものでした。科学的根拠に基づくものではなく、公衆衛生に悪影響を与えるこのような勧告は日本の予防接種政策立案における根深い問題を反映したものであり、早急な改善が求められます。全文はこちらから

Staff and students of GHP have published a letter in the Lancet criticising recent Japanese decisions on HPV vaccination. Recent Ministry of Health recommendations on how to manage the HPV vaccination program are confusing, have no scientific basis and will have a negative public health impact. These guidelines reflect deeper problems in the development of vaccination policy in Japan, which is in need of urgent reform. The full article is available here.

2013.9.20

Research misconduct and scientific integrity: a call for a global forum

渋谷健司教授が執筆した医学研究における不正行為に対する国際的な取り組みを呼び掛けるレターがランセット誌に掲載されました。昨今日本で起きた一連の重 大な不正行為を鑑み、本レターでは今回の経験を共有し、研究における不正行為を防ぐための取り組みを推進する国際的フォーラムの形成を提言していま す。全文はこちらから。

Professor Kenji Shibuya has published a letter to the Lancet calling for global action against fraud and misconduct in medical research. Written in the light of a series of recent cases of serious research misconduct in Japan, this letter recommends the formation of a global forum to share experience and promote action to prevent research misconduct. You can read the full article here.

2013.7.5

Smoking-attributable burden of lung cancer in the Philippines

A GHP graduate student, Ver Bilano, recently presented her research results on smoking and lung cancer in the Philippines at a major health metrics conference in Seattle, USA. Global Health Metrics & Evaluation: Data, Debates, Directions, held from June 17th-19th 2013, was sponsored by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, The Lancet, and the University of Melbourne School of Population and Global Health. It brought together experts in the global burden of disease field from all around [...]

2013.6.12

Aerosol transmission is an important mode of influenza A virus spread

Associate Professor Hiroshi Nishiura’s work on influenza transmission dynamics has been published in the journal Nature Communications. This work is a collaboration with research institutes around the world, and advances our knowledge about the relative importance of different transmission mechanisms in the spread of influenza. The article can be read here, and more information about Dr. Nishiura is available here.

2013.6.3

Self-reported illness and household strategies for coping with health-care payments in Bangladesh

On the 1st June, PhD student Mizanur Rahman published his latest research in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization.  Using a representative population survey from Rajshahi district, this research explores the risk factors for distress financing and the type of coping strategies used. Out of pocket payments are the main source of healthcare financing in Bangladesh, and in the absence of a strong risk-pooling mechanism such payments can be devastating for poor families, so the research presents timely [...]

2013.4.16

Cash-transfer programmes in developing countries

On April 13th, Stuart Gilmour and Kenji Shibuya published a commentary in the Lancet, describing a policy framework for implementing cash-transfer programmes in developing nations. The article, which was published alongside a new study of the effectiveness of a large program in Zimbabwe, also describes future goals for research into cash-transfer programmes. The article can be read here.