日本人全体の異性間性交渉未経験の割合を推定した論文が英医学誌BMC Public Health に 発表された。出生動向基本調査のデータを用いた本研究では、異性間性交渉の経験がない １８－３９歳の男女の割合が１９９２年から２０１５年の間増加傾向にあるとことが分かった。３０代の男女の１０人に一人は異性間性交渉未経験であった。無職、非正規・時短雇用及び低い収入が、男性では異性間性交渉経験が無いことに関連していることがわかった。
The first study assessing the proportion of young Japanese adults who has no heterosexual experience has been published in BMC Public Health. In analyses using data from the National Fertility Survey, the proportion of 18-39 year-old Japanese women and men who report no experience of heterosexual intercourse had increased between 1992 and 2015 and 1 in 10 adults remained inexperienced in their 30s. Among men (but not women) unemployment and [...]
Is the world on track towards eliminating the tobacco epidemic?
With more than one billion individuals projected to be tobacco smokers by the year 2025, persistent disparities in tobacco smoking between countries, and rapid growth of smoking in African and eastern Mediterranean nations, there are still major challenges to be overcome in curbing the tobacco epidemic. These are the findings of a collaborative project led by Ver Bilano, a graduate student in the Department of Global Health Policy, which is published [...]
ビラノ バー（東京大学大学院医学系研究科国際保健政策学 博士課程大学院生）
ギルモア スチュアート（東京大学大学院医学系研究科国際保健政策学 助教）
渋谷 健司（東京大学大学院医学系研究科国際保健政策学 教授）
今 回、東京大学大学院医学系研究科国際保健政策学の渋谷健司教授、同博士課程ビラノ・バー大学院生、ギルモア・スチュアート助教らは、WHO及び豪州ニュー カッスル大学との共同研究により、多くの国で2025年までにたばこ使用の削減目標が達成される見込みは低いとの結果を得た。
世 界全体では、喫煙率は少しずつ低下しており、2000年から2010年にかけて、男性の喫煙率が125カ国（72％）、女性では155カ国（87％）で減 少した。しかし、アフリカや中東の国々では今後、喫煙率は増加し、2025年時点で喫煙人口は11億人に達し、たばこの使用が世界的に広がるリスクがある と予測された。
雑誌名： The Lancet 2015年3月14日号 385: 966–76
著者：Ver Bilano, Stuart Gilmour, Trevor Moffiet, Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet, Gretchen A Stevens, Alison Commar, Frank Tuyl, Irene Hudson, Kenji Shibuya.
Associate Professor Hiroshi Nishiura has published a paper on Ebola virus in the journal Eurosurveillance. This is the first research to estimate the reproduction number of Ebola virus disease (EVD), calculating it at between 1.4 and 1.7. The reproduction number of an infectious disease measures its transmission potential, and this value suggests that the current Ebola outbreak can be managed by reducing the number of secondary cases of EVD from each primary case by more than half. The article can [...]
This week Professor Kenji Shibuya and colleagues published correspondence in the journal Nature, discussing the need to reform Japan’s research practices in light of recent scandals. The letter discusses the challenges prime minister Abe faces trying to strengthen Japan’s medical research industry at the same time as Japan’s international research reputation is being undermined by major research misconduct scandals. Tanimoto, Kami and Shibuya call for misconduct investigations to be open and formally conducted, in order that lessons can be learned [...]
Professors Shibuya and Gilmour from GHP, and Akira Oshima from Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, today published a letter in The Lancet about challenges to thyroid screening in radiation-affected areas in Fukushima. Their letter recommends a careful scientific and ethical reassessment of the newly-commenced thyroid screening program, which in its current form may not calm the fears of local residents, nor provide good scientific evidence concerning thyroid cancer risk.
The letter can be read here.
A medical student conducting an internship at GHP has reported his analysis results from a mathematical modeling study.
Ryo Ueno, a fifth-year medical student at the Graduate School of Medicine, the University of Tokyo, with GHP staff member Associate Professor Hiroshi Nishiura, has published a short note on epidemiological interpretations of the diagnosis of a single imported case of dengue in a German traveler returning from Japan. The letter was published in the February issue of Eurosurveillance, and can be read [...]
On January 20th, 2014 two GHP students came first and second in the 16th Annual Contest for Scientific Papers by Foreign Students, held by the Graduate School of Medicine. This contest is open to foreign students of the Graduate School of Medicine who were the first author on a paper accepted for publication in 2013. GHP students Ver Bilano and Sarah Krull Abe came first and second, respectively.
GHP staff have contributed a chapter to an important new book, Noncommunicable Diseases in the Developing World: Addressing the Gaps in Global Health Policy.
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) – including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, asthma and chronic respiratory infections, and cancers – are the leading causes of death worldwide. Roughly two out of three deaths globally are from NCDs and 80% of these fatalities occur in low- and middle-income countries.
Noncommunicable Diseases in the Developing World: Addressing the Gaps in Global Health Policy [...]
Staff and students of GHP have published a letter in the Lancet criticising recent Japanese decisions on HPV vaccination. Recent Ministry of Health recommendations on how to manage the HPV vaccination program are confusing, have no scientific basis and will have a negative public health impact. These guidelines reflect deeper problems in the development of vaccination policy in Japan, which is in need of urgent reform. The full article is available here.
Professor Kenji Shibuya has published a letter to the Lancet calling for global action against fraud and misconduct in medical research. Written in the light of a series of recent cases of serious research misconduct in Japan, this letter recommends the formation of a global forum to share experience and promote action to prevent research misconduct. You can read the full article here.
A GHP graduate student, Ver Bilano, recently presented her research results on smoking and lung cancer in the Philippines at a major health metrics conference in Seattle, USA. Global Health Metrics & Evaluation: Data, Debates, Directions, held from June 17th-19th 2013, was sponsored by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, The Lancet, and the University of Melbourne School of Population and Global Health. It brought together experts in the global burden of disease field from all around [...]
Associate Professor Hiroshi Nishiura’s work on influenza transmission dynamics has been published in the journal Nature Communications. This work is a collaboration with research institutes around the world, and advances our knowledge about the relative importance of different transmission mechanisms in the spread of influenza. The article can be read here, and more information about Dr. Nishiura is available here.
On the 1st June, PhD student Mizanur Rahman published his latest research in the Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Using a representative population survey from Rajshahi district, this research explores the risk factors for distress financing and the type of coping strategies used. Out of pocket payments are the main source of healthcare financing in Bangladesh, and in the absence of a strong risk-pooling mechanism such payments can be devastating for poor families, so the research presents timely [...]
On April 13th, Stuart Gilmour and Kenji Shibuya published a commentary in the Lancet, describing a policy framework for implementing cash-transfer programmes in developing nations. The article, which was published alongside a new study of the effectiveness of a large program in Zimbabwe, also describes future goals for research into cash-transfer programmes. The article can be read here.